News & Info about Platforms
A computing platform is, in the most general sense, whatever a pre-existing piece of computer software or code object is designed to run within, obeying its constraints, and making use of its facilities.
The term computing platform can refer to different abstraction levels, including a certain hardware architecture, an operating system (OS), and runtime libraries. In total it can be said as stage on which computer programs can run.
Binary executables have to be compiled for a specific hardware platform, since different central processor units have different machine codes. In addition, operating systems and runtime libraries allow re-use of code and provide abstraction layers which allow the same high-level source code to run on differently configured hardware. For example, there are many kinds of data storage device, and any individual computer can have a different configuration of storage devices; but the application is able to call a generic
write function provided by the OS and runtime libraries, which then handle the details themselves. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the application development process – the application is written for such-and-such a platform – and an assistance to the development process, in that they provide low-level functionality ready-made.
Platforms may also include:
- Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS.
- A browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
- An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform.
- Software frameworks that provide ready-made functionality.
- Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together. The social networking sites Twitter and facebook are also considered development platforms.
- A virtual machine (VM) such as the Java virtual machine. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is then executed by the VM.
- A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software and storage. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac.
Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it. For instance, a java program has to be written to use the java virtual machine (JVM) and associated libraries as a platform, but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS.
List of operating systems
Read the extended article here list of operating systems
- 1.1Acorn Computers
- 1.2Amiga Inc.
- 1.3Apple Inc.
- 1.4Apollo Computer
- 1.6BAE Systems
- 1.7Be Inc.
- 1.8Bell Labs
- 1.9Bull SAS
- 1.10Burroughs Corporation (later Unisys)
- 1.11Control Data Corporation
- 1.12Convergent Technologies
- 1.13Data General
- 1.15DDC-I, Inc.
- 1.16Digital Research, Inc.
- 1.17Digital/Tandem Computers/Compaq/HP
- 1.18ENEA AB
- 1.20General Electric
- 1.22Green Hills Software
- 1.23Heathkit/Zenith Data Systems
- 1.26Intel Corporation
- 1.27.1On early IBM mainframes (1400, 1800, 701, 704, 709, 7090, and 7094)
- 1.27.2On IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
- 1.27.3On IBM PC and Intel x86 based architectures
- 1.27.4On other IBM hardware platforms
- 1.28International Computers Limited
- 1.29Lynx Software Technologies (formerly LynuxWorks, originally Lynx Real-time Systems)
- 1.30Micrium Inc.
- 1.31Microsoft Corporation
- 1.33NCR Corporation
- 1.36Quadros Systems
- 1.39Samsung Electronics
- 1.40SCO, SCO Group
- 1.41Scientific Data Systems (SDS)
- 1.42Sciopta Systems GmbH
- 1.44Tandy Corporation
- 1.45Texas Instruments
- 1.46TRON Project
- 1.48UNIVAC (later Unisys)
- 1.49Wang Laboratories
- 1.51Wind River Systems
- 1.52.2Non-standard language-based
- 1.52.3Other proprietary non-Unix-like
- 1.52.4Other proprietary Unix-like and POSIX-compliant
- 2.1.1Research Unix-like and other POSIX-compliant
- 2.1.2Free and open source Unix-like
- 2.1.3Other Unix-like
- 2.2.1Research non-Unix-like
- 2.2.2Free and open source non-Unix-like
- 3Disk operating systems
- 4Network operating systems
- 5Web operating systems
- 6Generic/commodity and other
- 7For Elektronika BK
- 9.1Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
- 9.2Digital media players
- 9.3Smartphones and Mobile phones
- 9.5Other embedded
- 9.6LEGO Mindstorms
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